This bibliography reflects sources used by students in their online exhibits as well as selected sources on the topics listed below.  Most titles are available in the Bard College Archives or Hudson Valley Archives.


Hudson River Valley

Boyle, Robert H.  The Hudson River: A Natural and Unnatural History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1969.

Carmer, Carl. The Hudson. New York: Rhinehart and Co, 1939. 

Dunwell, Frances.   The Hudson: America’s River. Foreword by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Lewis, Tom. The Hudson:  A History New Haven: Yale, 2005.

Schuyler, David. Sanctified Landscape: Writers, Artists, and the Hudson River Valley, 1820-1909. Ithaca:  Cornell University Press, 2012. 

Tieger, Bernard B. Tivoli: The Making of a Community Tivoli: Village Books Press, 2013.

Wermuth, Thomas S., Johnson, James M. and Christopher Pryslopski, eds.  America’s First River: The History and Culture of the Hudson River Valley.  Albany:  SUNY Press and Hudson River Valley Institute, 2009. 

Annandale and Bard College

Aldrich, John W. “A Brief Account of Cruger's Island, Magdelen Island, The North Bay, and Adjoining Uplands.” Red Hook: Historic Red Hook, pamphlet, circa 1975.

Fogel, Nan. "Blithewood: A Biography," Our Outdoor Heritage: Dutchess County Historical Society Yearbook, vol. 90 (2011): 43-64.

Harrar, Bessina. Blithewood: A History of Place.  NP: Bluebird Press, 2009.

Hopson, George.  Reminiscences of St. Stephen’s College, Annandale, New York.  New York: Edward S. Gorham, 1910.

Johnson, Joanne. F. “Schuyler’s Patent.” Senior Thesis, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 1950.

Kline, Reamer.   Education for the Common Good: A History of Bard College:  the Frist 100 Years (1860-1960).  Annandale-on Hudson, NY: Bard College, 1982.

Lewis, John. N.   “Reminiscences of Annandale—A Lecture Delivered before the Officers and Students of St. Stephen’s College,” Annandale-on Hudson, NY 1895

Magee, Christopher.   “The History of St. Stephen’s College, 1860-1933.” Senior Thesis, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 1950.

Majovski, Barbara Deyo. “From Cedar Hill to Annandale: A Documentary Investigation of a Village in the Mid-to-late Nineteenth Century.” Senior Thesis, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 1996.

Matthews, William Henry.  In and About A Grey Stone Manor House.  New York: AICP, 1929.  (Ward Manor)

Parrella, Amy B. “Annandale-on-Hudson’s Historic Estates and their Landscapes, “ Hudson River Valley Review 27, no. 1 (2010): 102-12.

Preservation Master Plan for Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York.  Report prepared by John Milner Associates for Bard College, December 2008. 

Sandys, Arthur.   “Diary of Arthur Sandys,” c. 1893.  (reserves direct)

Red Hook, Rhinebeck and Dutchess County

Carr, Clare O’Neill. A Brief History of Red Hook. New York: Wise Family Trust, 2001.

Hasbrouck, Frank, ed. The History of Dutchess County, New York. Poughkeepsie, N.Y: S. A. Matthieu, 1909.

Jancius, Angela. “A Future in the Past?: A Community Study of Historic Rhinebeck.” Senior Thesis, Bard College: Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 1994.

Kelly. Nancy V. A Brief History of Rhinebeck. New York: Wise Family Trust, 2001.

Kilivris, Matthew. “Preserving Open Space in Red Hook, New York: Directing Development and Protecting Open Space with Transfer of Development Rights.” Senior Thesis, Bard College: Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 2005.

Philip, Cynthia Owen.  Rhinecliff: A Hudson River History.  Hensonville, NY: Black Dome Press, 2008.

Smith, James H. History of Dutchess County, New York.  Syracuse: D. Mason and Co., 1882, reprint Heart of the Lakes Publishing Co. for Dutchess Co. Genealogical Society, n.d.

Online and General Resources

Indexes for the Dutchess County Historical Society Yearbook and the Hudson River Valley Review (

Hudson River Valley Heritage ( is a collection of images and documents from archival organizations throughout the Hudson Valley, including Bard.

Consortium of Rhinebeck History ( contains finding aids for the holdings of historical organizations in the Rhinebeck area.    

Old Fulton New York State Historical Newspaper pages and post cards may also be helpful, although quirky (www.

Documentary History of the State of New York, Arranged under the Director of Hon. Christopher Morgan, Secretary of State, by E. B. O’Callaghan. Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1849-51.   Multi-volume completion of early New York documents.  Print.

The Colonial Albany Social History Project contains online background information on individuals from Albany who settled Dutchess County in the colonial period.

The “America: History and Life” database available through the Bard Library collects journal articles that may be relevant to your topic.

Art, Architecture, and Landscape

Avery, Kevin J. “Maya on the Hudson: Frederic Church’s Cayambe and the ‘Folly’ of Cruger’s Island.” Paper presented at Revisiting the Hudson: Nineteenth Century Landscape Painting in Context, New Paltz, NY, November 7, 2009.

Downing, Andrew Jackson.   The Architecture of Country Houses. New York: Dover, 1969.

____. Rural Essays.  New York: DaCapo, 1974.

____.  A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. 6th ed.  New York: A.O. Moore, 1859.

Haley, Jacquetta M., ed. The Horticulturalist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste, A Visit to Montgomery Place by Andrew Jackson Downing. Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988

____. Pleasure Grounds:  Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place.   Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988.

____. Sketches of Montgomery Place by Alexander Jackson Davis.  (portfolio).
Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988.

Eberlein, Harold Donaldson and Hubbard, Cortlandt Van Dyke.   Historic Houses of the Hudson Valley.  New York: Bonanza Books, 1942.

Luppino, Virginia. “The Picturesque: Calvert Vaux and Wilderstein.” Senior Thesis, Bard College: Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 2000.

Piwonka, Ruth. The Landscape Art of Montgomery Livingston (1816-1855): a Catalogue of His Works. Kinderhook, NY: Columbia County Historical Society, 1980.

Schuyler, David.  Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815-1852.   Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. Dutch Houses in the Hudson Valley Before 1776.  Introduction by Franklin D. Roosevelt.  New York: Payson and Clark, for the Holland Society, 1929; Dover Publications, reprint, 1965.

____. Dutchess County Doorways and Other Examples of Period Work in Wood, 1730-1830.  With Accounts of Houses, Places and People.  New York: William Farquhar Payson, 1931. 

“Uxmal-on-Hudson: Mayan Ruins on Cruger’s Island in the 19th Century.” Bard College Archives & Special Collections.

African Americans in the Hudson Valley

Armstead, Myra B. Young.   Freedom’s Gardner: James F. Brown, Horticulture, and the Hudson Valley in Antebellum America.  New York: New York University Press, 2012.

____. “Lord Please Don’t Take Me in August”: African Americans In Newport and Saratoga Springs, 1870-1930.   Urbana, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1999.  (reserve)

____, ed.  Mighty Change, Tall Within: Black Identity in the Hudson Valley. Albany: SUNY Press, 2003.

Groth, Michael. “Forging Freedom in the Mid-Hudson Valley: The End of Slavery and the formation of the Free African American Community in Dutchess County, NY,”  Ph.D. dissertation, Binghamton University, 1994.  (available by special request)

McDermott, William P. “’A Quality Not Generally Annexed to the Character of a Negro’: Slavery in Rhinebeck, New York 1714-1800” in Hudson Valley Regional Review 13, no.2 (1996):1-20. 

Williams-Myers, A.J.  Long Hammering:  Essays on the Forging of an African American Presence in the Hudson River Valley to the Early Twentieth Century.  Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1994.

Williams-Myers, A.J. “The Underground Railroad in the Hudson River Valley: A Succinct Historical Composite,” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, vol. 27, no. 1 (January 2003): 55-73. 

Estates and Estate Owners

Allcott, John V. “Robert Donaldson, the First North Carolinian to Become Prominent in the Arts.” North Carolina Historical Review. Oct 1975, Vol. 52 Issue 4, p 333-366. 34p.

Anderson, Jean Bradley. Carolinian on the Hudson: The Life of Robert Donaldson. Raleigh, NC: Historic Preservation Foundation of North Carolina, 1996.

Babbitt, Katherine M. Janet Montgomery: Hudson River Squire. Monroe, NY: Library Research Associates, 1975. Print.

Brandt, Clare. American Aristocracy: The Livingstons.  Poughkeepsie, NY: privately published, 1990.   

Haley, Jacquetta M., ed.  Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place with Illustrations by Alexander Jackson Davis.   Tarrytown: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988.  

Jenrette, Richard H. Adventures With Old Houses. Layton, UT: Wyrick & Company, 2005.

Johnson, Kathleen Eagan and Vetare, Margaret L. American Acadia.

Kiener, Cynthia A. Traders and Gentlefolk: The Livingstons of New York, 1675-1790. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992. 

Livingston Manor Tercentenery Commission.  The Livingston Legacy: Three Centuries of American History.  Annandale on Hudson: Bard College Office of Publications, c. 1987. 

Skeen, Carl E. John Armstrong, Jr. 1758-1843: A Biography.  Syracuse:  Syracuse University Press, 1982.

Smith, McKeldon.   The Great Estates Region of the Hudson River Valley. 

Historic Hudson Valley Press, 1998.

Native Americans

Lindner, Christopher R., “The Earliest Thirteen Millennia of Cultural Adaptation Along the Hudson River Estuary.” In Environmental History of the Hudson River, edited by Robert E. Henshaw, 65-76. Albany: State University of New York, 2011. 

Merwick, Donna.  The Shame and the Sorrow: Dutch-Ameridnian Encounters in New Netherland.  Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Otto, Paul Andrew.  The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley.   New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.

Schutt, Amy C. Peoples of the River Valleys: The Odyssey of the Delaware Indians.  Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Social and Political History

Benham, Stanley H., Sr. Rural Life in the Hudson River Valley, 1880-1920.  Poughkeepsie: Hudson House, 2005).  Photos and reminiscences.

Benson, Lee.  The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case.  Princeton:  Princeton Univ. Press, 1961.

Ellis, David Maldwyn.   Landlords and Farmers in the Hudson-Mohawk Region, 1790-1850.  New York: Octagon Books, 1967.

Huston, Reeve, Land and Freedom: Rural Society, Popular Protest, Party Politics in Antebellum New York.   New York: Oxford, 2000.

Kaminsky, Lucy. “An Evolution of Land Use in Rural New York: Building a Future for the Hudson Valley by Preserving its Past.” Senior Thesis, Bard College: Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, 2007.

Kim, Sung Bok.  Landlord and Tenant in Colonial New York Manorial Society, 1664-1775.  Chapel Hill: Univ. NC Press, 1978.

Lord, Philip L., Jr. Mills on the Tsatsawassa: Techniques for Documenting Early 19th Century Water-Powered Industry in Rural New York: A Case Study.  Albany: New York State Museum, 1983.

McDermott, William P. Dutchess County’s Plain Folks:  Enduring Uncertainy, Inequality, and Uneven Prosperity, 1725-1825.  Tolland, CT: Kerleen Press, 2004. 

Otterness, Philip. Becoming German: the 1709 Palatine Migration to New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.

Wermuth, Thomas S. The Transformation of Rural Society in the Hudson River Valley, 1720-1850.  Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.