Banner image: Tools for grafting fruit trees from Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees, By William Forsyth, 1803

Further reading:


A virtual museum from a private collection in West London of old tools: Old Garden Tools Virtual Museum, Old Garden Tools, 2017, West London (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

In an article from the British magazine Gardens Illustrated, collector Louise Allen of Garden & Wood shares a few of her favorite tools and gives tips on starting your own collection: Sorrel Everton, “Collecting classic and vintage tools,” Gardens Illustrated, November 2014 (Issue 215), 28 October 2014 - 12:00am (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

Parks & Gardens UK is the leading on-line resource for historic parks and gardens. This post offers interesting illustrations and many useful links: Dr. David Marsh, “Garden Tools & Equipment,” Parks & Gardens UK, Posted on 13/09/2014  (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017).

The Small Farmer’s Journal is an international agrarian quarterly established in 1976 by Lynn Miller. This article by Sjoerd W. Duiker, Soil Management Specialist, of Penn State University, University Park, PA is a comprehensive overview of scythes: Sjoerd W. Duiker, “Mowing with Scythes,” Small Farmer's Journal, Issue: Volume 37 Issue 2, Spring 2013 (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

A Load of Old Billhooks is edited by Bob Burgess, a private collector in Warminster,  Wiltshire (UK), with a collection of over 6000 billhooks and numerous other edge tools: Bob Burgess, “Yorkshire Billhooks,”  A Load of Old Billhooks, 26/27 December 2015. (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

Timeless Tools is an online gallery of vintage agricultural and  garden tools for sale: “Yorkshire Billhooks,” Timeless Tools  (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

Agriculture History

Growing a Nation: the Story of American Agriculture is an interactive multimedia program that tells the story of American agriculture and its influence on important events and issues in American history. It was designed and developed by LetterPress Software with funding and content assistance from the United States Department of Agriculture. Debra Spielmaker, Associate Professor, Utah State University Extension served as the project director and was a major contributor. Debra Spielmaker, editor, “Historical Timeline — Farm Machinery & Technology,” Growing a Nation: The Story of American Agriculture, 2014, LetterPress Software, Inc., Utah State University Innovation Campus (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CHLA) is a core electronic collection of agricultural texts published between the early nineteenth century and the middle to late twentieth century: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture (CHLA). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University. (Version January 2005). (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

The National Agricultural Library is one of four national libraries of the United States and houses one of the world's largest collections devoted to agriculture and its related sciences. (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

Local agricultural history

The American Arcadia project newly interprets Montgomery Place through this lens of American environmental history, with particular focus on the women who shaped the property: Kathleen Eagen Johnson and Margaret L. Vetare, Montgomery Place: An American Arcadia, 2011 Historic Hudson Valley. (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)

An online collection of articles about ice harvesting on the Hudson river:  Cliff Lamere, Ice Harvesting from the Hudson River, 16-21 Feb 2009, revised 25 Apr 2010. (Date Accessed: 12/15/2017)